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SOCIAL   AND    POLITICAL    LIFE            171

stand the tremendous emphasis placed on "filial piety,*' which
is regarded as the "first of all virtues." The Chinese word for
"culture" or "religion/* ckiao, is even derived from the word
for "filial piety/' hsiao, being written with the sign for "filial
piety" plus a causative radical (meaning "making filial"). So
explains the Hsiaoking (Classic of Filial Piety}:

Confucius said: "The reason why the gentleman teaches
filial piety is not because it is to be seen in the home and
everyday life. Hfe teaches filial piety in order that man may
respect all those who are fathers in the world. He teaches
brotherliness in the younger brother, in order that man may
respect all those who are elder brothers in the world. He
teaches the duty of the subject, in order that man may respect
all who are rulers in the world."

Again, Confucius said:

"Those who love their parents dare not show hatred to
others. Those who respect their parents, dare not show
rudeness to others."

In this sense he could say to Tsengtse, his disciple:

"Filial piety is the basis of virtue, and the origin of culture.
Sit down again, and let me tell you. The body and hair and
skin are received from the parents, and may not be injured:
this is the beginning of filial piety* To do the right thing and
walk according to the right morals, thus leaving a good name
in posterity, in order to glorify one's ancestors: this is the
culmination of filial piety. Filial piety begins with serving
one's parents, leads to serving one's king, and ends in
establishing one's character. . , ."

The whole moral philosophy was based on the theory of
imitation in society and the theory of habit in education. The
method of sodal education was by establishing the right mental
attitude from childhood, beginning naturally at home. There
is nothing wrong in this. Its only weakness was the mixing of